June 2014 Global Weather Extremes Summary
June 2014 Global Weather Extremes Summary
June was globally the warmest such on record according to NOAA/NCDC. See Jeff Masters' blog about this posted last Thursday. The month featured heat waves in portions of Japan, China, Western Europe, Central Asia, and Mexico. Late season cold and even some snowfall were observed in Estonia, Russia, and Scandinavia mid-month. Deadly flooding occurred in Bulgaria, Paraguay, Afghanistan, India and Sri Lanka. An intense dust storm struck Tehran, Iran on June 2nd. Yet another intense hurricane (Cristina) formed in the Eastern Pacific.
Below are some of the month’s highlights.
Temperatures and precipitation both averaged above normal for the contiguous U.S. during June (it was the 33rd warmest June since 1895 and the 6th wettest). It was the wettest June on record for Minnesota.
Statewide ranking for temperature (top map) and precipitation (bottom map) for this past June. Alaska endured its 2nd wettest June on record. Maps from NOAA/NCDC.
The hottest temperature measured in the U.S. during June was 120°F (48.9°C) at Death Valley, California on June 8th and 9th, and the coldest 12°F (-11.1°C) at Bodie, California on June 23rd.
It has been the driest 3-year period on record for California. The state concluded its water year on June 30th and the past 3 water seasons (water year of July 1-June 30) totaling a state-wide aggregate of 22.27” below normal precipitation, thus surpassing the previous 3-year period of such set in 1974-1977 which was 20.84” below the long term average (POR 1895-2014). Third place were the years of 1928-1931 with a -20.19” deficit. (The wettest 3-year period for the state was 27.13” above average July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1984). The annual average for the entire POR of 1895-1914 is 22.44” (67.32” for a 3-year period).
In contrast to the drought in California, some locations in the Midwest saw their wettest month (any month) on record, as was the case in Sioux Falls, South Dakota with a 13.70” (348 mm) total and an amazing 19.65” (499 mm) at nearby Canton, the greatest monthly precipitation on record for the entire state of South Dakota.
Northern Mexico endured some intense heat early in the month with readings of 49.5°C (121.1°F) at Hermosillo and 50.5°C (122.9°F) at El Oregano on June 3rd (a dubious reading of 51.5°C/124.7°F was also reported from Moris in Chihuahua State).
Hurricane Cristina formed in the Eastern Pacific on June 9th and intensified into a CAT 4 storm with 150 mph (240 km/h) winds. It was the second major hurricane of the season (after Hurricane Amanda in May), and the first time on record that two such powerful hurricanes formed so early in the season.
Hurricane Cristina at its strongest off the Mexican coast on June 12th with 150 mph sustained winds. Fortunately, the storm never made landfall in Mexico. NASA/MODIS image.
The coldest temperature measured in the northern hemisphere during June was -31.2°C (-24.2°F) at GEO Summit station in Greenland on June 2nd.
SOUTH AMERICA and CENTRAL AMERICA
Widespread flooding affected the Argentinean provinces of Misiones and Formosa at the end of the month forcing 3000 families from their homes. Heavy rains also caused flooding in Paraguay along the Parana and Paraguay Rivers resulting in the evacuation of some 300,000 inhabitants.
Flooding along the River Paraguay on June 12th displaced up to 300,000 people. Photo annp.gov.py
June in Europe saw a mixed bag of extreme weather with a record early month heat wave in Germany, France, and Switzerland followed by cold and even snow in Estonia and Latvia. It was the most intense heat wave for so early in the season on record for Germany and surrounding countries. The temperature in Germany peaked at 37.9°C (100.2°F) at Ihringen on June 9th, just short of the national June record of 38.2°C (100.8°F) set at Frankfort back in late June 1947. More about the European heat wave can be found in this blog I posted in June. The coldest temperature observed at a non-mountainous site in Germany during the month was 0.0°C (32.0°F) at Deutschneudorf-Bruderwiese on June 2nd and the greatest 24-hour precipitation 55.4 mm (2.18”) at Greifswald on June 11th. It was France’s 5th warmest June on record (since 1900). Reykjavik, Iceland had its 4th warmest June on record (since 1871), and the site of Stykkisholmur in western Iceland had its warmest June ever observed, (records there date back to 1845).
A rare late-season snowfall occurred in Estonia and Latvia on June 17th resulting in minor accumulations at Valke-Maarjain in Estonia. Snow was also reported at mid-level elevations in the mountains of Scandinavia on June 18-23 and also in portions of northwestern Russia on June 24-25.
Snow falling at Vlake-Maarja, Estonia on June 17th. The last time it snowed in June here was in 1982 (also on June17th). Photo courtesy of Daneile Ingemi.
A deadly flood struck the Bulgarian Black Sea port city of Varna on June 19th. At least 10 fatalities were reported as a result of the flooding.
Automobiles are swept away in the city of Varna, Bulgaria on June 19th during a torrential rainstorm. 165.3 mm (6.51”) of rain fell on the city over the course of a five-day period June 16-20. At least 10 lives were lost. AP photo.
In the U.K. June was warmer (tied as the 9th warmest) and a bit drier than normal. The warmest temperature observed was 27.0°C (80.6°F) at Cupar, Fife on June 18th and the coldest 0.9°C (33.6°F) at Altnaharra, Sutherland on June 26th. The greatest 24-hour precipitation observed was 56 mm (2.20”) at Nunraw Abbey, East Lothian on June 4-5.
A cold wave affected South Africa mid-month with a reading as low as -18.3°C (-0.9°F) at Buffelsfontein on June 11th and an all-time record low of -11.7°C (10.9°F) at Franfort on June 12th. In spite of the cold wave, the hottest temperature observed anywhere in the southern hemisphere during June was a 37.2°C (99.0°F) reading at Mtunzini, South Africa on June 4th.
Extreme heat scorched much of Asia during June. All-time record temperatures were tied on Hokkaido Island, Japan early in the month with readings as high as 37.8°C (100.0°F) observed on June 3rd. See my blog of June 10th for details about the early June heat waves across the northern hemisphere. Later in the month, extreme heat affected portions of Turkmenistan (up to 46°C/114.8°F), Uzbekistan (up to 45°C/113.0°F), And Kazakhstan. The Orenburg area of Russia (near the Kazakh border) saw temperatures peak at 42°C (107.6°F), close to the all-time Asian portion of Russia record of 42.7°C (108.9°F) set at Ust Kara on June 27, 2010. It was also very hot in the Middle East with 51.0°C (123.8°F) measured at Makkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia on June 30th which tied Larkana, Pakistan for the hottest temperature measured on earth during the month (it was 51.0°C at Larkana on June 6th). In Israel the temperature peaked at 46.6°C (115.9°F) at Eilat on the Red Sea and Cyprus reached 43.6°C (110.5°F) at Lefkonico. The heat in northern India was so bad (temperatures up to 47.8°C (118.0°F) that power stations shut down, unable to keep up with demand for air conditioning and fans. Riots broke out and several electric substations were burned down by mobs.
The climate table for Agra, India which was near the core of the hottest weather during the month. Note how almost every day exceeded 40°C (104°F) and the minimum temperature of 32.8°C (91.0°F) on June 21st. The 9-day period of June 4-12 saw daily highs exceed 45°C (113°F) every day. Table from OGIMET.
The heat wave in India was followed by monsoon storms that caused deadly flooding in the Assam region of northeastern India leaving at least 11 dead in and around the city of Gauhati. In Sri Lanka floods and mudslides caused the deaths of at least 22 in early June following a period of torrential monsoonal rains.
Afghanistan also suffered catastrophic flooding during the first week of June. In Baghlan Province 850 homes were destroyed and at least 80 lives lost.
A massive dust storm struck Tehran, Iran on June 2nd damaging structures and resulting in the deaths of at least five people.
A massive dust storm bears down on Tehran on June 2nd. The storm produced winds up to 70 mph (130 km/h). Photo from Iran News Update.
This past June in Australia precipitation averaged 32% below the long-term normal nationwide with temperatures averaging just slightly above normal. Two strong cold fronts brought heavy snow to the Alpine regions of New South Wales on June 24th and June 29-30th. Snow fell as low as 700 m (2300’) elevation.
Temperature (top map) and precipitation (bottom map) deciles for the month of June in Australia. Maps courtesy of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
The highest temperature observed was 35.9°C (96.6°F) at Bradshaw, Northern Territory on June 1st and the coldest -8.7°C (16.3°F) at Liawenee, Tasmania on June 9th. The greatest calendar day precipitation was 118 mm (4.64”) at Weeragua, Victoria on June 15th.
NEW ZEALAND and OCEANIA
It was the warmest June on record for New Zealand with temperatures averaging 1.9°C (3.4°F) above normal nationwide. 13 sites experienced their warmest June monthly mean temperatures and another 20 their 2nd warmest. The highest temperature observed during the month was 22.2°C (72.0°F) at Waione, North Island on June 8th and the coldest -7.4°C (18.7°F) at Hanmer Forest, South Island on June 1st. The greatest calendar day rainfall observed was 137 mm (5.39”) at Te Puke, North Island on June 11th.
In Micronesia the Yap atoll recorded 35.9°C (96.6°F) on June 8th, just 0.2°C (0.4°F) short of the Micronesian record of 36.1°C (97.0°F) set at Pohnpei, Palikir on August 24 and 25, 2001.
The coldest temperature in the southern hemisphere and the world during June was –78.9°C (-110.0°F) recorded at Concordia on June 6th. It was an unusually ‘mild’ month on the Antarctica Plateau with few very low temperatures observed. The South Pole station never touched -70°C (-94°F).
KUDOS Thanks to Maximiliano Herrera for global temperature extremes data, Jeremy Budd and NIWA for New Zealand data, and Michael Theusner of Klimahaus for German data.
Christopher C. Burt
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Christopher C. Burt is the author of 'Extreme Weather; A Guide and Record Book'. He studied meteorology at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
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